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Overall, points are awarded based on the quality of the posts and the degree to which the submissions contribute to the class discussion. Students must show evidence of engagement throughout the discussion and postings should reflect application of the assigned lesson materials. Peer-reviewed references, evidence (results of formal inquiry published in the literature), and current statistical data should be included as needed.

/2 Considering the current state of the pandemic, write a reflection of your concerns, feelings, or perspectives from at least two of the many “hats” that you wear (eg, student, parent, child of an older adult, healthcare provider, citizen, etc.).

/1 Has your perspective on the responsibility of the U.S. to participate in global health changed because of coronavirus. Why or why not?

/1 Leave your classmates with at least one way that you have learned to take better care of yourself over the last year or a self-care goal you have set for yourself.

/3 Choose and discuss ONE (1) of the following related to current global health concerns:

Discuss the inequities in vaccine availability and uptake for certain populations (eg, minority, intellectual disability, rural residing, etc.). Provide examples of population-specific strategies to improve rates of vaccination, and explain why they may be effective.
Summarize current statistics on how COVID-19 has impacted the overall life expectancy for U.S. citizens based on their race. How can this information be used to influence policy making?
Explain how addressing climate change can improve maternal health outcomes.
Summarize up-to-date information on a problem that APRNs will increasingly face as a result of the pandemic (eg, opioid misuse, intimate partner violence, child abuse) and explain how the pandemic increased its incidence. What policy changes are needed to address the problem.
E. Each student will submit an initial discussion post of approximately 750-850 words in the discussion. Support your discussion with at least 5 references. They will be a combination of peer-reviewed articles, information from organizational sites, and sources of current statistics. No title page is required. First person may be used throughout.

Links to use
https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/millennium-development-goals-(mdgs)

https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/why-us-health-care-should-think-globally/2016-07

https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/index.html

Home

https://globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/

https://www.worldbank.org/en/home

https://www.usaid.gov/

Global Health Policy

Critical Elements of a Class Discussion
? This class is enhanced by our differences, and respectful dialogue is
expected of all of your interactions with other students and faculty.
? Prepare for the assignment by reviewing the module content and resources. Students should
demonstrate graduate-level understanding and analysis of the concepts and the
relationships among ideas, identifying hidden assumptions or fallacies in reasoning. Students
are expected to demonstrate the ability to apply the principles or concepts in the lessons to
real-life situations integrating implications for advanced practice. Students should support
their opinions with expert opinion through a deep dive into the literature validating thinking
and/or broadening perspectives/understanding of the content

Global Health Introduction

There are a number of reasons why the U.S. invests in the health of other countries.? To start, the world is getting smaller so international heath affects U.S. health as populations continue to come into contact with each other more than ever before.? Also, as an international societal model, U.S. participation in global health concerns encourages the initiation of other humanitarian efforts, compounding the assistance that other nations receive–even from their own government, with data showing that global governments make health issues a priority when the U.S. does as well.? Stated another way, U.S. participation in global health stimulates international governments to allocate more human and financial services to their own people in addition to what the U.S. has provided.?
As prescribed in the AACN?Essentials?authored by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, DNP graduates are expected to assume leadership roles and inform health policy on the international level in response to the internationalization of healthcare.? In the past, students have met this requirement by exploring health care issues in various countries that receive U.S. assistance. This semester, the discussion will be a little more personal as you are tasked with exploring the global health issue that we are all currently experiencing.
?

The Importance of Global Health
There are many challenges in global health and these challenges are perpetuated as global leaders fail to recognize the critical role that nurses play in this area (Ahmed et al., 2013). Global health is becoming increasingly incorporated into national and public health discussions across disciplines. Insisting on a more inclusive view of global health serves many vital functions (Ahmed et al., 2013).? Advance practice nurses (APNs) must have a thorough understanding of the broader social and political context of health, illness, and wellness (Milstead, 2016).
Shared accountability acknowledges the interconnectedness of our world. Booming industry, social conditions, and modernity have garnered increased international mobility for both people and pathogens (Ahmed et al., 2013). There are multiple health care issues throughout the world that affect the entire global society. The advancements in technology and travel have led to an international interconnectedness that affects the health of individuals (Nickitas et al., 2020 ). A disease in one country is easily transmitted by travelers throughout the world. Healthcare boundaries are constantly evolving; we can be almost anywhere in the world in 36 hours. Transmission of infectious diseases across continents is now a reality while the devastating effects of noncommunicable diseases are also felt through our mutual interconnectedness. No nation can effectively remove itself from this responsibility of addressing global health–nor is it in their best interest (Ahmed et al., 2013).
Influences of Global Health:
No matter where we live, our well being depends on how health issues are managed around the world because of:
?Travel and migration
?Inadequate public health infrastructure
?Urbanization
?Globalization of trade
?Aging and chronic diseases
?Epic natural events
?Infectious diseases
Global heath reflects an important evolution in thinking about health care issues in the world that transcends national borders, class, race, ethnicity, and culture. These health problems have a global, political, and economic impact. Global health includes health problems that are ideally addressed by cooperative actions and whose solutions involve multiple countries. Countries must learn from each other regarding how diseases spread and how they can be treated and controlled. Working to solve global health issues helps ensure that financial resources are fairly distributed (Holtz, 2013). The World Health Organization (2012) defines health as ” a state of complete, physical, mental, social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (para. 1). Global health takes into account the health of populations in a worldwide context and includes perspectives and health issues of all nations.? Global health strategies require collaboration and cooperation among individuals, populations, political leaders, and policy makers working with public health to implement sustainable change (Nikitas et al., 2016).
Official health policy in any country affects the delivery of health care. Have you considered how the health status of individuals or populations affect policy making in a country? The presence of communicable diseases, such as malaria and tuberculosis, and the presence of noncommunicable health issues, such as nutrition, environmental issues, and lack of basic human needs, direct how a country allocates resources for these health related issues.
Global and International Health Agencies:
There are a variety of agencies that are involved in global or international health efforts. These agencies can be loosely grouped as:
?Bilateral agencies:?(eg, United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
?Multilateral agencies:?(eg, World Health Organization [WHO], Pan American Health Organization [PAHO] and the United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund [UNICEF]).
?Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs):?(eg, philanthropic foundations, corporations and other organizations that engage in activities to address various issues throughout the world).? NGOs have been assuming more responsibility for global issues.? In addition, private donors may prefer to work through NGOs because issues can be resolved faster without a lot of “red tape.” NGOs typically have knowledge of local needs and can assist in grass root activities to promote healthcare initiatives.
?Global Health Partnerships (GHPs):?The emergence of GHPs has been an important development. Some have been established specifically to act as global health funding agents, two of which stand out–The Global Fund and Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI).
The United Nations?Millennium Development Goals?
?(Links to an external site.)
were launched in 2000. Dashboards published on the?World Banks Database
?(Links to an external site.)
?show the progress towards meeting the eight MDGs related to child mortality, maternal heath, poverty, education, HIV/Malaria, the environment, and global partnerships. The target year for achieving these improvements in health was 2015, but unfortunately health trends have not been promising. Even in a setting of increased awareness of health disparities and greater commitments from richer nations to global health campaigns, needs far outweigh efforts. The World Health Organization (WHO) identi?es the gaps in achieving the goals as gaps in social justice, responsibility, implementation, and knowledge (WHO; 2006). There are no quick or easy ??xes? for the gaps identi?ed by WHO. Viewing global health as a shared responsibility continues to be di?cult in settings of ?nancial stressors and the changing dynamic of the economic and political strife in many countries in the world.
The U.S. government’s Global Health Initiative (GHI) is building successful bipartisan leadership in global health and achieving sustainable results around the world.? Combating global disease protects not only citizens of the U.S. but people living all over the world.? According to USAID (2012), global health is vital to national security and investing in other countries reduces instability that sparks conflict and drives economic growth that strengthens families, communities, and countries.

References
Ahmed, S. W., Andrist, L. C., Davis,. S. M., & Fuller, V. J. (2013).?DNP education, practice, and policy: Redesigning advanced practice roles for the 21st century.? Springer.
Holtz, C. (2013).?Global healthcare: Issues and polices?(2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett.
Milstead, J. A. (2016).?Health policy and politics?(5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.
Nickitas, D. M., Middaugh, D. J., & Feeg, V. D.?(2020).?Policy and politics for nurses and other health professionals. (3rd ed.). Jones & Bartlett.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2006).?Engaging in health-eleventh general programme of work 2006?2015: A global health agenda.?http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2006/GPW_eng.pdf
World Health Organization (WHO). (2012).?Definition of health. https://www.who.int/about/who-we-are/frequently-asked-questions

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