*writing this based on attached paper*
How to write an Extended Summary
Although you already have an article written as part of your paper, in the real world, the Extended Summary is the last item that we write. In this assignment, you will write an Extended Summary for your paper. This Extended Summary will be longer (400- 500 words) than the abstract that you have already written and must follow the structure indicated below.
Provide a <500 word Extended Summary of your review research paper with the following structure below. Construct your Extended Summary by extracting sentences from your completed review, and then editing them to make a coherent and seamless piece of writing.
Without providing headlines, divide your summary in seven (7) sections:
Write one to two sentences of how your topic relates to a bigger field and/or why it is important to talk about it. The sentences should be comprehensible to a general scientific audience. Do not include jargon.
Example: If my topic is development of bird duets (it would be very specific and not attractive to a broad audience if I jump right to talk about bird duets), I could start with:
?Vocal communication is vital in many animal species, including humans.?
With this sentence, I am bringing in people interested in communication (not just duetting) AND I am saying that it might be of importance to our own species.
I will avoid mentioning concepts like ?duet codes? in these sentences, because few people know what they are. Even other biologists might not know what I am talking about (duetting jargon).
Effects of Pollution on Marine Life
Today, pollution is a serious problem all around the world. Pollution has been discovered to have adverse effects on marine life and hurt human life. Studies on the impacts of pollution on marine life have been conducted worldwide to assist in minimizing the high rate of pollution in various countries. As a result, marine life deaths are being reported worldwide, and the cause has been connected to the high rate of pollution. Previous research has focused on how pollution can be dealt with only its consequences, with little success. The current study looked at the sources of pollution the impacts of pollution on marine life. It then recommended some solutions for controlling the causes so that the causes can be addressed. This is thought to eliminate pollution. As a result, this study focused on global warming, debris deposition, human economic activities such as agriculture, mining, fishing, and industrialization. The literature study revealed that all of these sources of pollution harmed marine life. However, the causes might be controlled to gradually lessen the consequences until zero pollution is attained. As a result of the study's findings, it was recommended that plastic bags and bottles be banned, farmers adopt modern farming technology, fishermen use natural fishing methods, and individuals reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere by reducing the use of renewable energy sources and aerosols, as these were the leading causes identified. The findings of this study will be used to guide future research into the effects of pollution on marine life and how pollution might be reduced. This study is significant because it bases its hypotheses on the problem's underlying cause, so dealing with the problem's root cause is the most effective method to deal with the problem. Individuals should join hands to reduce pollution because the path of our future environment is determined by the actions we do today.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Both on land and in water, pollution is destructive to the environment and the overall ecosystem. There are several types of pollution, including air and water pollution, with water pollution being the most dangerous. This is because water pollution has a significant impact on marine life (Ritchie & Roser, 2018). Many factors and aspects contribute to water pollution. It could happen due to an oil leak in a water supply, for example. Oil causes suffocation in marine life by preventing air circulation in the sea. As a result, marine life such as fish, crabs, and a variety of other creatures cannot breathe and finally perish. Runoff water into water sources can potentially pollute the environment. When it rains heavily, for example, a large amount of waste is washed into the sea and rainwater. Plastic bottles and bags, many degraded soils, and foreign pollutants from companies that are hazardous to marine life are examples of these materials. This impacts marine life because when plastic bags and bottles are dumped into the sea, they envelop water plants and restrict their growth, leaving marine animals hungry. Eroded soil also raises the sea level, contributing to increased high temperatures in the ocean exposing fish to diseases (Anagnosti et al. 2021).
Ocean mining also contributes to pollution by introducing foreign toxic substances into the water, such as lubricants from mining machinery, as well as disturbing sea animals with noise pollution. Pollution in the environment can contribute to global warming, which has disastrous consequences for marine life. All of these factors and many more constitute a threat to marine life, and solutions should be developed to assist mitigate these effects and prevent harm to marine life. Much research has been conducted on the consequences of pollution on marine life and measures to mitigate the effects, but pollution appears to be increasing by the day. This study will look at the causes of this pollution and its effects in an attempt to come up with effective strategies to counter pollution based on the root cause.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Global warming results from pollution and how it affects marine life.
The most significant serious hazard to marine life has been identified as global warming (See Figure 1). Global warming is produced by releasing hazardous greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which depletes the ozone layer, resulting in higher global temperatures. These high temperatures are hazardous to marine life because as the earth's temperature rises, so does the temperature of the sea. Pathogens damage marine life such as fish, turtles, shrimp, crabs, and others when water temperatures are too high (Adejumoke, n.d.). Excessive growth of water plants in the sea and oceans is also a result of global warming. This disrupts the movement of water animals, potentially resulting in the death of some fish and crabs due to a lack of space as a result of congestion. Global warming also causes glaciers to melt into the sea, rising sea levels and disrupting creatures such as penguins who cannot survive in deep waters. Tsunamis are also a possibility, and they are damaging in the sense that some sea species are at risk of being swept out to sea by powerful tsunami waves, where they may perish. Also, the penguins who do not like deep waters will drown and die (see fig.5).
2.2. Debris and how they affect marine life.
The most well-known type of water pollution is debris. Debris is made up of sedimentary debris and compounds that have been deposited in the sea. This trash can be dumped in to the water by humans and natural processes such as rain. Plastics, silt, metals, and stones are among the various sorts and forms of trash deposited in the water. Marine life is at risk as a result of this garbage. (As shown in Fig. 4). Plastic waste makes up most of the debris that settles in the sea, and it has a significant negative influence on marine life. Plastics, for example, stifle the growth of aquatic plants, which provide food for aquatic animals. This is because they engulf the plants and prevent them from growing further due to a lack of oxygen, causing them to die. When there are fewer plants in the sea, food becomes scarce for marine animals, and some starve and die (Napper & Thompson, 2020).
Also, when fewer water plants are in the water, less oxygen is circulated, causing aquatic animals to choke and perish. This is due to the fact that plants create oxygen and contribute to an adequate oxygen supply in the water; as a result, when the plants are removed, the oxygen supply in the water becomes insufficient for consumption. When water animals become entangled in plastic bags, they may suffocate. This is because the plastic bags may obstruct their gills and prevent them from moving in the water, causing the creatures to drown. As a result, marine animals confuse plastics for food, and when they eat them, the plastics obstruct their airways, causing them to perish (Gall & Thompson, 2015).
Other sediments dumped into the oceans and sea include metals and soil. Marine species may consume these metals, and they may also cause harm to them. Furthermore, the meals inhibit the growth of marine vegetation, resulting in hunger in the sea and oceans as a result of food shortages. When stones and degraded dirt are dumped in the sea, they fill it up, reducing the depth of the sea and so making the waters shallow (Dom?nech et al., 2019). Shallow water has an impact on sea animals because the temperature of the water rises, making it unsuitable for marine life. The plants lack the nutrients required to support the sea animals' immune systems. Also, because these materials decay and require oxygen to do so, they end up utilizing a lot of oxygen, depriving sea animals of oxygen (See Figure 3.)
2.3. Pollution caused by human economic activities and how they affect marine life; Sewage, industrial waste, and agricultural wastes.
Another thing that contributes to pollution is human activity. Agricultural operations, for example, result in the deposition of some hazardous compounds in the water. When farmers utilize farm inputs like nitrogenous fertilizers, severe rains wash some of these pollutants into the sea. When nitrogen enters the aquatic ecosystem, algae are more likely to sprout and overgrow, posing a threat to aquatic animals due to their toxicity and the fact that oxygen will be used up quickly, leaving the marine animals with insufficient oxygen (Tudi et al., 2021).
Mining is one of the various activities that can be done in addition to agricultural operations. Oil spillage into the water can occur as a result of water mining. Oil in water prevents both the admission of air and sunshine into the sea. (As seen in fig. 4) When sunlight is obstructed, there is no photosynthesis in the sea, and the water plants are unable to produce food. This will result in famine in the sea due to a lack of food for sea animals such as crabs, fish, and penguins who live on the shores of lakes, oceans, and seas. In addition, the feathery and fur animals' ability to move in the sea is hampered since they become slippery and unable to move (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA) (Todd et al., 2010). Crawling sea creatures such as snails and slugs are harmed when oil is present on the shore because they are unable to move. Furthermore, because the oil is harmful, it may be swallowed and so kill the animals. Furthermore, the noise created by mining machines is distracting to see animals in the sense that it causes pain and anxiety. Aside from that, the noise affects these marine species' reproductive, communication, and movement routines. Toxic substances are also released into the ocean as a result of sewage that has been dumped in the sea. These chemicals are consumed by the fish, causing them to die. Another example of pollution is the use of sodium cyanide for fishing, as fishermen utilize sodium cyanide to catch more fish at once (Cervino et al., 2003).
CHAPTER 3: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Many marine species have died as a result of pollution, and this trend is expected to continue as pollution levels rise. Many pollution incidents have been traced to have a significant impact on marine life, according to the literature reviewed above. As a result, this study suggests that indiscriminate pollution from agricultural operations, marine mining, industrial waste disposal, sewage drainage, debris deposition, and global warming has significantly impacted marine life. However, another finding from the review of the above literature is that the causes of this pollution have been identified, and in order to mitigate or even prevent the effects of pollution on sea life, these causes must be investigated in order to develop appropriate solutions to mitigate the effects. For example, the first effect was global warming, which resulted in the demise of marine life due to rising temperatures. The release of damaging greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is to blame for global warming. The most effective technique is to use renewable energy sources that do not emit hazardous pollutants into the atmosphere. This can be accomplished by using electric vehicles and energy-efficient lighting. Aerosol use should also be restricted in order to protect the ozone layer from depletion.
The second was trash accumulating in the water. To combat this, suitable waste management procedures must be implemented to prevent the discharge of plastic garbage into bodies of water. For example, distributing garbage cans along the streets and recycling plastic bottles and bags. Additionally, prohibiting the use of non-biodegradable items, such as plastic bags and bottles will help to reduce pollution. Also, proper soil conservation will prevent soil erosion into the sea, resulting in the sedimentation of soil and stones (2020, Napper & Thompson).
According to Todd et al. (2010), human economic activities are another source of pollution highlighted in the research study. To avoid nitrogenous wastes from entering rivers, lakes, oceans, and seas, farmers must use modern farming technologies. Instead of dumping industrial waste and sewage into water sources, industries should find a better way to dispose of them (Kandziora et al., 2019). Glitters have also been identified as a means to convert non-biodegradable materials to biodegradable materials (Yurtsever, 2019). (As shown in fig. 6) Another source of contamination in the sea is marine mining, which results in oil spills. Miners should avoid mining near water sources because it generates noise pollution, which impacts marine life (Cormier & Londsdale, 2020). Fishermen should also practice natural fishing methods to prevent toxic and deadly chemicals that destroy marine life. If all of these measures are taken, pollution will be reduced, and marine life will be protected (Dom?nech et al., 2019). In their research on environmental pollution, Dom?nech et al. found a decrease in the amount of foreign material ingestion by sea animals and thus recommend that current studies take note of standardized debris protocol. As a result, future research should determine whether the solutions proposed in this study were helpful and what steps should be taken next.
Adejumoke, I.?Water Pollution: Effects, Prevention, and Climatic Impact.
Anagnosti, L., Varvaresou, A., Pavlou, P., Protopapa, E., & Carayanni, V. (2021). Worldwide actions against plastic pollution from microbeads and microplastics in cosmetics focusing on European policies. Has the issue been handled effectively?.?Marine Pollution Bulletin,?162, 111883.
Antoine, Y. (2022). Retrieved 13 March 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Yo-Antoine-Touali/publication/315739451_MARINE_DEBRIS_DISPERSION_BY_TIDAL_FLOW_IN_ORKNEY_WATERS_HYDRODYNAMICS_MODEL_USING_DELFT3D-PART_MARINE_RENEWABLE_ENERGY_ICIT_ORKNEY_INTERNATIONAL_CENTRE_FOR_ISLAND_TECHNOLOGY_2/links/58e0ad794585153bfe9809fb/MARINE-DEBRIS-DISPERSION-BY-TIDAL-FLOW-IN-ORKNEY-WATERS-HYDRODYNAMICS-MODEL-USING-DELFT3D-PART-MARINE-RENEWABLE-ENERGY-ICIT-ORKNEY-INTERNATIONAL-CENTRE-FOR-ISLAND-TECHNOLOGY-2.pdf.
Cervino, J., Hayes, R., Honovich, M., Goreau, T., Jones, S., & Rubec, P. (2003). Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide.?Marine Pollution Bulletin,?46(5), 573-586. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0025-326x(03)00071-7
Cormier, R., & Londsdale, J. (2020). Risk assessment for deep-sea mining: An overview of risk. Marine Policy,?114, 103485.
Dom?nech, F., Aznar, F., Raga, J., & Tom?s, J. (2019). Two decades of monitoring in marine debris ingestion in loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, from the western Mediterranean.?Environmental Pollution,?244, 367-378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.10.047
Gall, S., & Thompson, R. (2015). The impact of debris on marine life.?Marine Pollution Bulletin,?92(1-2), 170-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.12.041
Glitter at Christmas: Supermarkets tackle pollution by removing sparkles – CBBC Newsround. Bbc.co.uk. (2022). Retrieved 13 March 2022, from https://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/49590627.
Hai, D. M. (2019). Current situation and solutions for the environmental pollution in Vietnam.?Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research and Developments,?42(5), 06-10.
Inyinbor Adejumoke, A., Adebesin Babatunde, O., Oluyori Abimbola, P., Adelani Akande Tabitha, A., Dada Adewumi, O., & Oreofe Toyin, A. (2018). Water pollution: effects, prevention, and climatic impact.?Water Challenges of an Urbanizing World,?33, 33-47.
Kandziora, J. H., Van Toulon, N., Sobral, P., Taylor, H. L., Ribbink, A. J., Jambeck, J. R., & Werner, S. (2019). The critical role of marine debris networks is to prevent and reduce ocean plastic pollution. Marine pollution bulletin,?141, 657-662.
Melting Denali: Effects of Climate Change on Glaciers (U.S. National Park Service). Nps.gov. (2022). Retrieved 13 March 2022, from https://www.nps.gov/articles/aps-v6-i1-c2.htm.
Napper, I., & Thompson, R. (2020). Plastic Debris in the Marine Environment: History and Future Challenges.?Global Challenges,?4(6), 1900081. https://doi.org/10.1002/gch2.201900081
Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2018). Plastic pollution.?Our World in Data.
Thakur, A. (2022).?Review on Utilization of Waste plastic in Civil Engineering Construction Projects. Academia.edu. Retrieved 13 March 2022, from https://www.academia.edu/59495082/Review_on_Utilization_of_Waste_plastic_in_Civil_Engineering_Construction_Projects.
Todd, P., Ong, X., & Chou, L. (2010). Impacts of pollution on marine life in Southeast Asia.?Biodiversity And Conservation,?19(4), 1063-1082. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-010-9778-0
Tudi, M., Daniel Ruan, H., Wang, L., Lyu, J., Sadler, R., Connell, D., … & Phung, D. T. (2021). Agriculture development, pesticide application, and its impact on the environment. International journal of environmental research and public health,?18(3), 1112.
What happens if you have too much of these nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem? ? SidmartinBio. Sidmartinbio.org. (2022). Retrieved 13 March 2022, from https://www.sidmartinbio.org/what-happens-if-you-have-too-much-of-these-nutrients-in-an-aquatic-ecosystem/.
Yurtsever, M. (2019). Glitters as a Source of Primary Microplastics: An Approach to Environmental Responsibility and Ethics.?Journal Of Agricultural And Environmental Ethics,?32(3), 459-478. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10806-019-09785
APPENDIX: CHATS, GRAPHS, PICTURES
Figure 1 shows the marine pollutants by percentage.
From the study carried out on the causes of marine pollution, its evident that land runoffs comes the most at 44%, then followed by airborne emissions and then shipping spills at 12% then ocean damping at 10% and finally offshore oil and gas contribute the least to marine pollution at 1% (Antoine, 2022)
Figure 2 shows the rate at which different countries engage in water pollution in the oceans.
Out of all the studies done around the globe it has been found that the rate at which different countries contribute to water pollution is different in the sense that some countries contribute more than others as resented (Hai, 2019).
Figure 3 shows a histogram of the plastic mass on the surface of different oceans.
Plastic debris has been seen to be unending and is contributing a lot to marine deaths. This occur mostly in areas around the shores of the water sources and the histogram above highlights the plastic mass and particles on the surfaces of oceans around the globe (Thakur, 2022).?
Figure 4 shows the effect of pollution on water and the effect it has on marine life.
Introduction of toxic substances and chemicals such as nitrogenous wastes as a result of agricultural and industrial practices contribute to the increased growth of algae and other water plants which affects the marine life negatively such as death due to the insufficient oxygen supply ("What happens if you have too much of these nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem? ? SidmartinBio", 2022).
Figure 5 shows how global warming affects the sea and the effect it has on marine life.
Global warming causes an increase in the temperatures in water and as a result, glaciers melt and animals such as bears and penguins lack safe environments to stay and some of them drown. This also increases the sea level and the water from the sea floods the shores of the ocean destroying the habitats of other animals ("Melting Denali: Effects of Climate Change on Glaciers (U.S. National Park Service)", 2022).
Figure 6 shows pieces of non-biodegradable materials reduced to glitters as a way of conservation.
Yurtsever (2019), posit that reducing non-biodegradable materials into glitters which are degradable is the best way to manage plastic waste. This will reduce the amount of plastic debris found in the water ("Glitter at Christmas: Supermarkets tackle pollution by removing sparkles – CBBC Newsround", 2022).
Write one or two facts that are known about your research topic. You must make sure the information presented is accurate, comprehensible to scientists in related disciplines and are key for the reader to understand the rationale and motivation of your study.
Example: (remember I just said that vocal communication is very important)
?For instance, birds use vocal communication, in the form of calls and songs to defend territories and attract mates (FACT 1). There are some bird species, especially in tropical regions, in which both the male and females sing coordinately to form duets (FACT 2).?
I am still avoiding jargon, because non-bird people should understand what I am saying without searching obscure words. I am not saying anything that could be an opinion or that is inaccurate.
3. Problem statement:
Describe in one or two sentences the current gap(s) in our understanding of this field. The problem should be connected with the facts you just stated.
?Ample research has been done about the ontogeny of songs in species in which only the male sings, finding that songbirds learn to sing during early development in a similar way that humans learn to speak. However, it is still unknown if duetting birds learn the additional skills required to duet during the early stages of their lives.?
In the first sentence, I connect my two facts with the problem, in the second I state the problem that I will address in the study.
4. Hypothesis or Objective:
Write the main objective of the research/project. Your main objective should be to FILL the gap you stated there is. If you have multiple secondary objectives, state them all. Your objective(s) must be feasible. Your objective(s) should also contain the appropriate action verb(s). For reviews: You should state a purpose statement for all subsections of the review.
You can find an extensive list of possible action verbs in this website:
Action Verbs List (Links to an external site.)
Example: remember gap = development of duetting skills in songbirds.
?In this review, I highlight (action verb) three key features of song learning?neuroendocrine control mechanisms, timing and life history stages of song acquisition, and the role of social factors in song selection and use?that have been elucidated from species where only males sing, and compare these with duetting species. I summarize (Second action verb) what is known about song learning in duetting species and then provide several suggestions for fruitful directions for future research.?*
*Modified from: Rivera-C?ceres, K. D., & Templeton, C. N. (2019). A duetting perspective on avian song learning. Behavioural processes, 163, 71-80.
Important note (applies to instructions 2-4)- if you struggle to figure out what statements to use to explain the facts, problem and solution proposed, use the following resource:
"And, But, Therefore" Statement | SESYNC (Links to an external site.)
The post explains the ABT (And, But, Then) method as a compelling way to tell a story, The main structure is:
[This is true and observable] and [this is true and observable OR this data exists], but [problem statement], therefore [this is how we are addressing the problem]
[birds sing to attract mates and defend territories] and [some birds perform duets] but [not a lot is known about how duets develop] then [I will compare what we can learn from development studies in non-duetting birds and propose new research avenues]
5. Sources reviewed Methods:
Write one sentence with a general description of the literature surveyed including the time period and type of articles and the categorization of literature into subtopics.
Example: ?To perform this review, I surveyed 10 research papers published between 1990 and 2020, including three reviews.?
Write 3-5 sentences stating the major trends observed across the literature search from each subtopic. The major trends must correspond to the original objectives of the review.
?Regarding neuroendocrine control mechanisms, it seems that in oscine birds, brain nuclei and hormone regulation of song repertoire acquisition are similar in non-duetting and duetting species. However, only one study has addressed the neural regulation of vocal interactions, showing that the brains of duetting birds are able to store more than the individual?s own vocalizations unlike non-duetting birds. Regarding social factors in song selection and us, both song repertoire and song interaction rules seem to be acquired during early development through experience. But it seems that many of the vocal interaction rules can be modified during adulthood. I propose that an obvious direction for future research would be to increase the scope of research to examine many of the above topics from the perspective of female song.?
Remember objectives: highlight three key features of song learning and summarize what is known about song learning in duetting species.
7. Broader impacts:
Provide 1-3 sentences of how the compiled results contribute to the field and society or how the review provides a foundation for future research.
?This review is the first to compare the research available on ontogeny of song in duetting vs non duetting birds. I delve in the multiple gaps in duetting literature and the possible methods that can be used to address these gaps. I conclude that focusing research efforts on duetting species could significantly advance our understanding of vocal learning in birds and further cement the importance of avian species as models for understanding human conversations and the processes of vocal learning more broadly.?
Overall format and writing style:
You should use proper grammar and correct spelling. Avoid using jargon or define all uncommon terms. If you use acronyms, provide a description for them. You should mainly use active voice throughout your summary, unless you need to use passive voice to emphasize a particular point.
Example of passive voice: ?Ample research has been done about the ontogeny of songs in species in which only the male sings, finding that songbirds learn to sing during early development in a similar way that humans learn to speak.?
I used passive voice here because I am trying to emphasize the ample research that scientists have performed, and not the scientists that performed the research. All other sentences are using active voice.
You should follow formatting guidelines consistent with the full document/paper
Because extended summaries accompany the full paper and all the information comes from the full paper, extended summaries do not have a reference section. Also, by convention, extended summaries do not include in-text citations since they are intended to be short.
Full example of review summary:
Word count: 403
Vocal communication is vital in many animal species, including humans. For instance, birds use vocal communication, in the form of calls and songs to defend territories and attract mates. There are some bird species, especially in tropical regions, in which both the male and females sing coordinately to form duets. Ample research has been done about the ontogeny of songs in species in which only the male sings, finding that songbirds learn to sing during early development in a similar way that humans learn to speak. However, it is still unknown if duetting birds learn the additional skills required to duet during the early stages of their lives. In this review, I highlight three key features of song learning?neuroendocrine control mechanisms, timing and life history stages of song acquisition, and the role of social factors in song selection and use?that have been elucidated from species where only males sing, and compare these with duetting species. I summarize what is known about song learning in duetting species and then provide several suggestions for fruitful directions for future research. To perform this review, I surveyed 30 research papers published between 1990 and 2020, including three reviews. Regarding neuroendocrine control mechanisms, it seems that in oscine birds, brain nuclei and hormone regulation of song repertoire acquisition are similar in non-duetting and duetting species. However, only one study has addressed the neural regulation of vocal interactions, showing that the brains of duetting birds are able to store more than the individual?s own vocalizations unlike non-duetting birds. Regarding social factors in song selection and us, both song repertoire and song interaction rules seem to be acquired during early development through experience. But it seems that many of the vocal interaction rules can be modified during adulthood. I propose that an obvious direction for future research would be to increase the scope of research to examine many of the above topics from the perspective of female song. This review is the first to compare the research available on ontogeny of song in duetting vs non duetting birds. I delve in the multiple gaps in duetting literature and the possible methods that can be used to address these gaps. I conclude that focusing research efforts on duetting species could significantly advance our understanding of vocal learning in birds and further cement the importance of avian species as models for understanding human conversations and the processes of vocal learning more broadly.