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Step #5 needs to be finished on the uploaded doc. The information to complete step 5 is with the tables and other pages . Please complete step 5 Lab #2

Partner #1:
Partner #2: Romisa Shakeriniasar

1.Each partner download and open the dataset in SPSS.
2.Complete this worksheet with your partner.
3.Download the worksheet as a PDF.
4.Turn in just one worksheet per group on Moodle, due Friday 4/1 by 11:59 pm.
5.I DO NOT anticipate this taking more than a normal class period (i.e., 1 hour 40 minutes), IF that long. If, for whatever reason, this lab is taking your group considerably longer than that, PLEASE reach out to me on Slack before proceeding.

PART 1: Do some stuff in SPSS!

***EDITORS? NOTE: The questions listed in the table below come directly from the GSS dataset; I did NOT write them. This dataset is from 2012, but some of the language used in it feels slightly aged (e.g., ?Homosexual couples??).***

Step 1: Choosing Variables
Select 6 variables from this list and summarize them in Table 1 below. THREE variables must be ORDINAL with 4 levels/groups; THREE must be interval.

SPSS Variable Name Question Measurement Scale
attend How often do you attend religious services? Never/Less than once per year/Once or twice per year/Several times per year/About once a month/2-3 times a month/Nearly every week/Every week/More than once a week
childs How many children have you ever had? Please count all that were born alive at any time (including any you had from a previous marriage). Actual number of kids
class If you were asked to use one of four names for your social class, which would you say you belong in: the lower class, the working class, the middle class or the upper class? Lower class/Working class/Middle class/Upper class/Don’t know
degree Respondent?s highest degree Less than HS ? Graduate
educ What is the highest grade in elementary school or high school that you finished and got credit for? Actual grade finished
hrs1 How many hours did you work last week? Actual hours worked
income In which of these groups did your total family income, from all sources, fall last year before taxes, that is? Categories from under $1,000 to $150,000, in varied increments
letin1 Do you think the number of immigrants to America nowadays should be: Increased a lot ? Reduced a lot
marhomo Homosexual couples should have the right to marry one another. Strongly agree ? Strongly disagree
polviews We hear a lot of talk these days about liberals and conservatives. I’m going to show you a seven-point scale on which the political views that people might hold are arranged from extremely liberal (point 1) to extremely conservative (point 7). Where would you place yourself on this scale? Extremely liberal ? Extremely conservative
partnrs5 How many sex partners have you had over the past five years? No partners ? 21-100 partners
pillok Do you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree that methods of birth control should be available to teenagers between the ages of 14 and 16 if their parents do not approve? Strongly agree ? strongly disagree
pray About how often do you pray? Several times a day/Once a day/Several times a week/Once a week/Less than once a week/Never

premarsex If a man and a woman have sex relations before marriage, do you think it is? Always wrong ? Not wrong at all
satjob On the whole, how satisfied are you with the work you do? Very satisfied ? Very dissatisfied
sexfreq About how many times did you have sex during the last 12 months? Not at all ? more than 3 times a week
spanking Do you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree that it is sometimes necessary to discipline a child with a good, hard, spanking? Strongly agree ? Strongly disagree
tvhours On the average day, about how many hours do you personally watch television? Actual number of TV hours per day
wwwhours Not counting email, how many hours per week do you use the Web? Actual number of hours per week
xmarsex What is your opinion about a married person having sexual relations with someone other than the marriage partner? Always wrong ? Not wrong at all

Table 1: Variables
(Level) SPSS Variable Name Explain what the variable measures IN YOUR OWN WORDS
1 (Ord) Attend How often do you attend religious services?
2 (Ord) income The group that the family?s total income (before taxes) fall into for the previous year
3 (Ord) educ The highest educational level achieved
4 (Int) www hours The time spent online
5 (Int) hrs1 Hours spent doing work the previous week
6 (Int) sexfreq Estimated amount of sex in the past 12months

Step 2: Graphs!
Next, create a graphical representation of each variable! Copy and paste the graphs into the spaces below.

1.Click Analyze
a.Descriptive Statistics ? Frequencies
2.Frequencies window appears
3.Find the first of your 6 variables
a.Select it and move it into the right-hand window
4.Click Charts
5.Click CONTINUE, THEN OK; SPSS will create the graph on the same output as your FDs
6.Copy and paste graph below
7.Repeat for other 5 variables

Figure 1: [Attend]

Figure 2: [income ]

Figure 3: [educ]

Figure 4: [www hours]

Figure 5: [hrs1]

Figure 6: [sexfreq]

Step 3: Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion
Now that we have these descriptions of our variables, let?s first examine what the typical case in each looks like (MCT) and then how much variability is in each (dispersion!).

1.Click Analyze
a.Descriptive Statistics ? Frequencies
2.Frequencies window appears
3.Find the first of your 6 variables
a.Select it and move it into the right-hand window
b.Find the other 5 variables and do the same thing
4.Click Statistics
a.Check boxes for mean and standard deviation
5.Click OK and SPSS will create the frequency distributions on an output just like before
a.BUT you will also see the statistics you asked for in a summary table at the top
6.Use this info to complete Tables 2 and 3 below
a.HINT: To find the Category Label for ordinal variables?
i.At the bottom of SPSS, select VARIABLE VIEW
ii.Find your variable?s ROW in the column on the left, scan across to the VALUES column
iii.Click on the cell in Values column, then click the small button that appears with three dots
iv.A new box will pop open called Value Labels; in here, you will see the categories associated with each value of your variable!

Table 2: Measures of Central Tendency and Measures of Dispersion ? Ordinal variables
SPSS Name Level of Measurement Mean (Number) Category (Label) Range SD
Attend Ordinal 2.71 8 2.592
income Ordinal 14.84 24 6.476
educ Ordinal 13.41 14 2.41

Table 3: Measures of Central Tendency and Measures of Dispersion ? Interval variables
SPSS Name Level of Measurement Mean Range SD
www hours Interval 14.52 184 19.555
hrs1 Interval 35.79 88 14.25
sexfreq Interval 4 6 1.509

Step 4: Calculating Z-Scores
You now have lots of information about this sample on the variables you chose ? plenty of ways to describe people?s answers. Let?s add another descriptive statistic to that list: z-scores! Using the steps below, you can easily calculate z-scores for EACH participant on your chosen variables; remember, these will pinpoint how far from the mean each score is.


1.Click Analyze
a.Descriptive Statistics ? Descriptives
2.Descriptives window appears
3.Find your three INTERVAL variables
a.Move them to the box on the right
4.Check the box that says ?Save standardized values as variables?
5.Click OK
a.That will create three NEW variables in your dataset labeled ?zVARIABLENAME? (e.g., ?zclass?)
6.Click on DATA VIEW at the bottom of the SPSS dataset screen
7.Find the COLUMN for your first variable
a.Right click on the column header and select SORT DESCENDING
i.Enter the top value into Table 4 below for ?Highest z-score?
ii.Repeat for other two variables
b.Right click on the column header again, but this time select SORT ASCENDING
i.Enter the top value into Table 4 below for ?Lowest z-score?
ii.Repeat for other two variables
8.Use the textbook Appendix B (Normal Curve Table) to complete Table 4

Table 4: Z-scores ? Interval Variables
SPSS Name Level of Measurement Highest z-score % of scores above % of scores below Lowest z-score % of scores above % of scores below
www hours Interval 8.67 0% 100% -0.74 77% 23%
hrs1 Interval 3.73 0% 100% -2.44 99% 1%
sexfreq Interval 1.32 10% 90% -2.65 99% 1%

Step 5: Reporting and Interpreting Results
You now have quite a bit of info about the sample in this dataset. Using the information from Tables 2-4, write a sentence to summarize the distribution of each variable.

1.For the ordinal variables, include the mean, range, and SD in your sentence. Be sure to place the variable IN CONTEXT ? that is, mention what it?s measuring.
2.For the interval variables, include all of the above, but also add in the z-score info from Table 4. Mention, for instance, the percentage of cases that fall above or below a certain value in the dataset (e.g., ?Roughly 98% of all people would be expected to be younger than age 89, which had a z-score = 2.75?).

Table 5: Summary of findings
Variable SPSS Name Newspaper sentence(s)
1 (ord) Attend
2 (ord) income

3 (ord) educ
4 (int) www hours
5 (int) hrs1
6 (int) sexfreq

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