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Read entire document attached carefully. Using the data obtained in lab, answer all questions, write a hypothesis and a conclusion for this lab. Conlusion must mention if hypothesis was supported or not. Heart Rate Response to
Baroreceptor Feedback
One of the homeostatic mechanisms of the human body serves to maintain a fairly constant blood pressure. Major determinants of blood pressure are heart rate, amount of blood pumped with each beat (stroke volume), and the resistance of the arterial system which is receiving the blood. The heart rate is influenced by baroreceptors, special sensors in tissues in the aortic arch and carotid arteries which contain nerve endings that respond to stretching (see Figure 1). An increase or decrease in stretch sends signals to the medulla in the brain which in turn acts on the heart through the vagus nerve, completing what is called a feedback loop. Sudden increase in pressure in the heart or carotid arteries causes an increase in stretch of the baroreceptor sensors and results in a decrease in heart rate. Sudden lowering of pressure causes the opposite effect. This feedback loop enables us to function in a gravity environment.
Most people have experienced the sensation of dizziness after standing abruptly from a seated or squatting position. This effect can be seen in healthy individuals, but it is accentuated in the elderly and in certain conditions including dehydration and Parkinson?s disease. In these cases, the increase in heart rate may be significant but is still not able to make up for an insufficiency of the other two contributors to blood pressure (i.e., low blood volume or poor regulation of the resistance of the arterial system by the sympathetic nervous system). One of the first tests performed by doctors on patients who complain of dizziness is to check the blood pressure and pulse with the patient lying down and then standing. A drop in blood pressure of 20 points or an increase in heart rate of 20?points with standing is considered significant. This condition is called orthostatic hypotension.
In this experiment, you will observe heart rate response to squatting and to standing from a squatting position. In the former, there is a rapid increase in venous return to the heart as veins in the leg muscles are compressed. This causes a sudden increase in stroke volume and pressure sensed by the baroreceptors. In standing from a squatting position, there is a sudden reduction in venous return to the heart because of ?pooling? of blood in the legs. This results in a decrease in stroke volume and pressure.
Important: Do not attempt this experiment if you suffer from knee pain or dizzy spells. Inform your instructor of any possible health problems that might be exacerbated if you participate in this exercise.

Objectives
In this experiment, you will
?Observe pulse response to sudden squatting.
?Observe pulse response to sudden standing from a squatting position.
?Correlate pulse response to sympathetic nervous system function.

MATERIALS
LabQuest
LabQuest App
Vernier Hand-Grip Heart Rate Monitor
or Vernier Exercise Heart Rate Monitor
saline solution in dropper bottle
(only for use with Exercise HR Monitor)

PROCEDURE
1. Connect the receiver module of the Heart Rate Monitor to LabQuest and choose New from the File menu.
2. On the Meter screen, tap Length. Change the data-collection length to 400 seconds. Select OK.
3. Set up the Heart Rate Monitor. Follow the directions for your type of Heart Rate Monitor.
Using a Hand-Grip Heart Rate Monitor
a.The receiver and one of the handles are marked with a white alignment arrow as shown in Figure 2. Locate these two arrows.
b.Have the subject grasp the handles of the Hand-Grip Heart Rate Monitor so that their fingers are in the reference areas indicated in Figure?3. Hold the handles vertically.
c.Have someone else hold the receiver near the handles so that the two alignment arrows are pointing in the same direction and are at approximately the same height as shown in Figure 2. Note: The receiver must stay within 60 cm of the handles during data collection.

Figure 4
Using an Exercise Heart Rate Monitor
a.Depending upon your size, select a small or large size elastic strap. Secure one of the plastic ends of the elastic strap to the transmitter belt. It is important that the strap provide a snug fit of the transmitter belt.
b.Wet each of the electrodes (the two textured oval areas on the underside of the transmitter belt) with 3 drops of saline solution.
c.
Secure the transmitter belt against the skin directly over the base of the rib cage (see Figure 4). The POLAR logo on the front of the belt should be centered. Adjust the elastic strap to ensure a tight fit.
d.Take the receiver module of the Heart Rate Monitor in your right hand. Remember that the receiver must be within 80?cm of the transmitter in the Heart Rate Monitor belt.

4. Stand so your Heart Rate Monitor is within the reception range of the receiver module.
5. Start data collection. There will be a 15?s delay while data are collected before the first point is plotted on the upper graph. Thereafter, a point will be plotted every 5?s. Obtain 30 s of graphed data as a baseline heart rate for the standing position.
6. After at least 30 s of stable baseline data has been collected, rapidly lower yourself into a squatting position. Maintain this position until your heart rate returns to the initial baseline rate.
7. After obtaining 10?20 s of stable heart rate values, rise rapidly to a standing position. Continue to record data until the baseline heart rate has been achieved, or until the end of the run. Data will be collected for 400 s.
8. Determine the baseline heart rate.
a.Tap and drag over the area of the graph where the resting heart rate is displayed to select the data.
b.Choose Statistics from the Analyze menu.
c.Record the mean heart rate, to the nearest whole number, in Table 1.
d.Choose Statistics from the Analyze menu to turn off statistics.
9. Determine the maximum heart rate over the entire run.
a.Choose Statistics from the Analyze menu.
b.Record the maximum heart rate in Table?1.
c.Choose Statistics from the Analyze menu to turn off statistics.
10. Determine the baroreceptor response time for squatting.
a.Tap the data point that represents the heart rate immediately prior to squatting.
b.Record the time component of this point.
c.Tap the point that represents the maximum or minimum heart rate (first peak or valley) that follows squatting.
d.Record the time component of this point.
e.Determine the difference between the two time values, ?x, and record this value in Table 2 (to the nearest whole number) as ?Response time 1.?
11. Repeat Step 10 for the following regions:
a.From the maximum or minimum heart rate following squatting to the beginning of a new stable heart rate. Record the ?x value (time) in Table 2 as ?Recovery time 1.?
b.The region just prior to standing and the maximum heart rate after standing. Record the ?x value (time) in Table 2 as ?Response time?2.?
c.The region between the maximum heart rate after standing and the point at which the heart rate has re-stabilized (i.e., stable for at least 40 s). Record the ?x value (time) in Table 2 as ?Recovery time 2.?
DATA
Table 1
Baseline heart rate
(bpm) Minimum heart rate
(bpm) Maximum heart rate
(bpm)
96 83 114

Table 2
Initial time Final time Total time
Baroreceptor response time 1: Squatting (s) 70 85 15
Recovery time 1 (s) 85 115 30
Baroreceptor response time 2: Standing (s) 115 175 60
Recovery time 2 (s) 175 245 70

Data Analysis
1. How much and in which direction (increase or decrease) did the heart rate change as a result of
a.standing?

b.squatting?

2. Changing the heart rate is only one of a variety of homeostatic mechanisms that maintain a fairly constant blood pressure during changes in body position. The sympathetic nervous system helps by adjusting peripheral resistance in the arterial system. As this occurs the heart rate is able to normalize again. Compare the duration of the initial direction of heart rate change after standing to the recovery time. What does your data tell you about the relative speed of the change in peripheral vascular resistance as compared to that of the heart rate response?

3. Dizziness may result from low blood pressure and can occur in patients who take medicines which impair the ability of the heart to increase its rate. Given what you have learned from your data, which daily activities would be most likely to cause dizziness in people who take these medications?

4. Using your knowledge of heart rate response to a decrease in blood volume returning to the heart, suggest a way to evaluate (without the use of medical equipment) whether significant blood loss has occurred in an accident victim.

5. The majority of astronauts who are in a microgravity environment for several weeks will experience orthostatic hypotension and dizziness on return to Earth. What are possible mechanisms for this?

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