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and conducting an effective ?whole community? exercise program can be a
difficult and costly thing to do. There is the worry of the cost of the
training itself, the potential cost for the instructor, food if being provided,
equipment needed, and a training location. As an emergency manager, it is less
nerve-wracking to me to try and figure out the cost of all of the above, than
it might be an executive level leader. If there is anything that I have noticed
throughout my years in my job, it is that the executive level leaders are
always very concerned/worried when it comes down to the cost of training. I am
here to assure those leaders that there are many different ways to filling
their needs without spending a crazy amount of money. Actually, I have learned
that there are a ton of free trainings that can be brought it which can cut
costs by an extreme amount. I am going to give advice and recommendations on
how to cut costs and to not put so much focus into the worrying aspect when it
comes to costs.

There are several different things
that emergency managers and/or executive level leaders can do in order to cut
costs or be cost effective when developing exercise/training. One thing that I
thing is important would be preparation/preparedness. The more you think
outside of the box and look at the bigger picture, that is an opportunity to be
cost efficient and better prepared. For example, looking at organization and
equipment elements, identifying potential exercise opportunities, and
identifying potential exercise opportunities can help to provide an overview of
what needs to be looked for rather than feeling like you are at point to where
you do not know where to start. By identifying these things, you save potential
money because you do not have to bring in help to help identify these things.
Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP): Quick Reference Guide
Michael Petrie, EMT-P, MBA, MA, EMSci Program Director,

What are Exercises?
Exercises are activities to train for and practice prevention, vulnerability reduction, response, and recovery capabilities in an environment that is risk free to participants. Exercises are designed to develop, improve or verify an organization?s capability to perform one or more functions. Within emergency management, there are discussion and operations-based exercises. Discussion-based exercises do not involve the movement of actual resources.
Operations-based exercises involve command centers or the movement of resources (e.g. epidemiological response teams) in the field setting. Additional information on types of exercises is contained in Section 2, Exercise Program Management.

Why do Organizations Conduct Exercises?
Exercises are used by organizations to:

1.Develop, test and validate policies, plans, procedures, training, equipment, and agreements;
2.Clarify and train personnel in roles and responsibilities;
3.Improve individual and team performance;
4.Improve interagency coordination;
5.Identify gaps in resources;
6.Strengthen relationships; and
7.Unfreeze personnel and organizations.

Five Phases of the HSEEP Exercise Cycle
1.Foundation: The following activities provide the foundation for an effective exercise: create a base of support (i.e., establish buy-in from the appropriate entities and/or senior officials); develop a project management timeline; identify an exercise planning team; and schedule planning conferences.
2.Design and Development: The design and development process focuses on identifying objectives, designing the scenario, creating documentation, coordinating logistics, planning exercise conduct, and selecting an evaluation and improvement methodology.
3.Conduct: After the design and development steps are complete, the exercise takes place. Exercise conduct steps include setup, briefings, facilitation/control/ evaluation, and wrap-up activities.
4.Evaluation: The evaluation phase for all exercises includes a formal exercise evaluation, an integrated analysis, and an After Action Report/Improvement Plan (AAR/IP) that identifies strengths and areas for improvement of an agency?s preparedness, based on exercise performance. Recommendations from evaluation used in improvement planning phase.
5.Improvement Planning: During improvement planning, the corrective actions identified in the evaluation phase are assigned, with due dates, to responsible parties; tracked to implementation; and then validated during subsequent exercises.

HSEEP Overview
1.Determine the Mission (Prevent, Protect, Respond, and Recover).
2.Determine what capabilities are needed to achieve the mission (from TCL).
3.Determine what activities and tasks are necessary to achieve the capability.
4.Create a scenario, to evaluate the identified capabilities, activities, and tasks.

HSEEP Exercise Process
1.Threat: What are the hazards or vulnerabilities?
2.Targets: What is your critical infrastructure?
3.Mission: What is your mission?
4.Capabilities: What do you need to perform your mission?
5.Training: What training is needed to perform your mission?
6.Exercise: Does your training and equipment meet your mission?
7.After Action Reporting: Critique and document the exercise.
8.Corrective Improvement Plan: Implement actions to improve the capabilities and the system.

The HSEEP Cycle

Full Scale Exercise Functional Exercise

Improve- ment Plan

Develop Strategy and Plan

Tabletops Workshops


Evaluate Exercise

Design Exercise

Discussion-Based Exercises

Operations-Based Exercises

Increasing Cost/Resources/Complexity

Conduct Exercise

Additional Information:

2)Exercise Program Management
Capabilities Based Planning
Capability-based planning: Planning to build capabilities suitable for a wide range of threats and hazards, while considering cost and prioritization. The exercise program begins with assessment of agency?s threats, vulnerabilities, and capabilities.
1.Identify capabilities and gaps in capabilities.
2.Decide what capabilities are needed to fill gaps.
3.Determine which tasks are needed to achieve capabilities.
4.Design exercises that improve ability to complete tasks.
5.Integrate priorities from Improvement Plans.
6.Prioritize improvements based on National Priorities and local priorities.

Types of Exercises

Discussion-Based Exercises
?Seminars: Informal discussion to orient participants to plans, policies, or procedures. Similar to a briefing.
?Workshops: Discussion used to build specific products; more structured than a seminar. Two way communication.
?Tabletop Exercises: Discussion of simulated scenarios to assess policies, plans, and procedures.
?Games: Competitive simulation involving two or more teams.

Training and Exercise Plan Scheduling
Training and Exercise Plan Workshop (T&EPW)

?What: (Multi-Agency) Annual Workshop to discuss HSEEP accomplishments and future needs. Also used to create or modify Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan.
?Who: Officials from participating agencies.
?Why: Agencies review their progress since last T&EPW and identify training needs for next year. Coordinates exercise schedules at State, regional and local levels?avoid duplication.
?Multi-Year Training and Exercise Plan: Longer term (usually 3 year) view of training and exercise needs. Plan identifies: program priorities, target capabilities, training courses, and exercises.

3)Exercise Foundation and Scheduling
Exercise Planning Team
What: The team that designs, develops, conducts and evaluates the exercise(s). The team creates exercise objectives, develops scenarios, and evaluation materials. Serves as POC for exercise information.

Organizational Structure: Exercise Planning Teams generally use ICS structure:

?Command: Leads overall planning process and successful exercise execution.
?Operations: Selects exercise design/capabilities, develops scenario, and identifies exercise controllers.
?Planning: Plans and coordinates exercise evaluation. Creates Exercise Evaluation Guides (EEGs). Identifies exercise evaluators.
?Logistics: Every agency participates in logistics. Provides/coordinates all exercise support, including actors, supplies, communications, signs, food.
?Finance: Manages budget, tracks costs, and seeks reimbursement. Registers VIPs and observers.
?Subject Matter Experts: Helps make exercise realistic. Provides technical information.

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